Líneas de Investigación

Neurobiología: Mecanismos neuroquímicos, celulares y moleculares asociados al sistema dopaminérgico.

Neurofarmacología: Caracterización neuroquímica y conductual de derivados anfetamínicos.

Neuroendocrinología: Programación neonatal con hormonas sexuales y sus efectos sobre el Sistema Mesocorticolímbico. Diferencias Sexuales

Neuroanatomía funcional: Caracterización de la regulación Neuroquímica de la liberación de dopamina en el Septum Lateral de rata.

Dr. Ramón Sotomayor-Zárate. Ver curriculum vitae in extenso (enero 2022)

Proyectos Vigentes

El Laboratorio de Neuroquímica y Neurofarmacología liderado por el Dr. Ramón Sotomayor-Zárate ha tenido financiamiento constante durante los últimos 13 años, permitiendo una tasa de publicaciones anuales periódicas y adquisición de bienes de capital que han fortalecido su capacidad de investigación.


2020-2023 Proyecto FONDECYT Regular: Role of the lateral septum in hedonic regulation of food intake: implications in obesity and food addiction.
Financiado por FONDECYT
Proyecto N° 120-0474
Rol: Investigador Responsable

2020-2023 Proyecto FONDECYT Regular: Role of multisystem activation of sympathetic nerves induced by leptin on the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and polycystic ovary in offspring of obese mothers.
Financiado por FONDECYT
Proyecto N° 120-1816
Rol: Co-Investigador (IR: Gonzalo Cruz)

2023-2024 Concurso de Fomento a la Vinculación Internacional para Instituciones de Investigación: Red Internacional para el estudio de la Neuroprotección y Dinámica Mitocondrial en Enfermedad de Alzheimer.
Financiado por Subdirección de Redes, Estrategia y Conocimiento ANID – 2022
Proyecto N° FOVI220166
Rol: Investigador Nacional Asociado (IR: Jorge Fuentealba)

2023-2026 Proyecto FONDECYT Regular: The role of the excitatory amino acid transporter EAAT3 in depressive behavior induced by chronic stress.
Financiado por FONDECYT
Proyecto N° 123-1012
Rol: Co-Investigador (IR: Pablo Moya)


Central and Peripheral Inflammation: A Common Factor Causing Addictive and Neurological Disorders and Aging-Related Pathologies. Escobar AP, Bonansco C, Cruz G, Dagnino-Subiabre A, Fuenzalida M, Negrón I, Sotomayor-Zárate R, Martínez-Pinto J, Jorquera G. Int J Mol Sci. 2023 Jun 13;24(12):10083. doi: 10.3390/ijms241210083.

Chronic Exposure to High Fat Diet Affects the Synaptic Transmission That Regulates the Dopamine Release in the Nucleus Accumbens of Adolescent Male Rats. Plaza-Briceño W, Velásquez VB, Silva-Olivares F, Ceballo K, Céspedes R, Jorquera G, Cruz G, Martínez-Pinto J, Bonansco C, Sotomayor-Zárate R. Int J Mol Sci. 2023 Feb 28;24(5):4703. doi: 10.3390/ijms24054703.

Obesogenic Diet-Induced Neuroinflammation: A Pathological Link between Hedonic and Homeostatic Control of Food Intake. Marcos JL, Olivares-Barraza R, Ceballo K, Wastavino M, Ortiz V, Riquelme J, Martínez-Pinto J, Muñoz P, Cruz G, Sotomayor-Zárate R. Int J Mol Sci. 2023 Jan 11;24(2):1468. doi: 10.3390/ijms24021468.

The Role of the Paraventricular-Coerulear Network on the Programming of Hypertension by Prenatal Undernutrition. Cayupe B, Troncoso B, Morgan C, Sáez-Briones P, Sotomayor-Zárate R, Constandil L, Hernández A, Morselli E, Barra R. Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Oct 8;23(19):11965. doi: 10.3390/ijms231911965.

Corticotropin-releasing factor system in the lateral septum: Implications in the pathophysiology of obesity. Olivares-Barraza R, Marcos JL, Martínez-Pinto J, Fuenzalida M, Bravo JA, Gysling K, Sotomayor-Zárate R. Front Mol Neurosci. 2022 Sep 20;15:1020903. doi: 10.3389/fnmol.2022.1020903. eCollection 2022.

UFR2709, an Antagonist of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors, Delays the Acquisition and Reduces Long-Term Ethanol Intake in Alcohol-Preferring UChB Bibulous Rats. Gálvez G, González-Gutiérrez JP, Hödar-Salazar M, Sotomayor-Zárate R, Quintanilla ME, Quilaqueo ME, Rivera-Meza M, Iturriaga-Vásquez P. Biomedicines. 2022 Jun 22;10(7):1482. doi: 10.3390/biomedicines10071482.

Early-Life Exposure to Non-Absorbable Broad-Spectrum Antibiotics Affects the Dopamine Mesocorticolimbic Pathway of Adult Rats in a Sex-Dependent Manner. González-Arancibia C, Collio V, Silva-Olivares F, Montaña-Collao P, Martínez-Pinto J, Julio-Pieper M, Sotomayor-Zárate R, Bravo JA. Front Pharmacol. 2022 Jun 30;13:837652. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2022.837652. eCollection 2022.

Modafinil Administration to Preadolescent Rat Impairs Non-Selective Attention, Frontal Cortex D2 Expression and Mesolimbic GABA Levels. Cid-Jofré V, Moreno M, Sotomayor-Zárate R, Cruz G, Renard GM. Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Jun 13;23(12):6602. doi: 10.3390/ijms23126602.

Effects of Early Life Exposure to Sex Hormones on Neurochemical and Behavioral Responses to Psychostimulants in Adulthood: Implications in Drug Addiction. Elgueta-Reyes M, Velásquez VB, Espinosa P, Riquelme R, Dib T, Sanguinetti NK, Escobar AP, Martínez-Pinto J, Renard GM, Sotomayor-Zárate R. Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Jun 12;23(12):6575. doi: 10.3390/ijms23126575.

Estrogen, Cognitive Performance, and Functional Imaging Studies: What Are We Missing About Neuroprotection?. Marchant IC, Chabert S, Martínez-Pinto J, Sotomayor-Zárate R, Ramírez-Barrantes R, Acevedo L, Córdova C, Olivero P. Front Cell Neurosci. 2022 May 12;16:866122. doi: 10.3389/fncel.2022.866122. eCollection 2022.

Risperidone in analgesia induced by paracetamol and meloxicam in experimental pain. Miranda HF, Noriega V, Sierralta F, Sotomayor-Zárate R, Prieto JC. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2022 Jan 6. doi: 10.1111/fcp.12754. Online ahead of print.

Altered Grooming Syntax and Amphetamine-Induced Dopamine Release in EAAT3 Overexpressing Mice. Escobar AP, Martínez-Pinto J, Silva-Olivares F, Sotomayor-Zárate R, Moya PR. Front Cell Neurosci. 2021 Jun 21;15:661478. doi: 10.3389/fncel.2021.661478. eCollection 2021.

Neonatal programming with sex hormones: Effect on expression of dopamine D1 receptor and neurotransmitters release in nucleus accumbens in adult male and female rats. Elgueta-Reyes M, Martínez-Pinto J, Renard GM, Sotomayor-Zárate R. Eur J Pharmacol. 2021 Apr 24:174118. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2021.174118

Editorial: Celebrating 40 Years of the Chilean Society of Pharmacology. Yévenes GE, Bravo JA, Díaz-Araya G, Sotomayor-Zárate R, Fiedler JL, Reyes-Parada M, Fuentealba J.Front Pharmacol. 2020 Dec 17;11:623195. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2020.623195. eCollection 2020.

Pharmacological Characterization of 4-Methylthioamphetamine Derivatives. Guajardo FG, Velásquez VB, Raby D, Núñez-Vivanco G, Iturriaga-Vásquez P, España RA, Reyes-Parada M, Sotomayor-Zárate R. Molecules. 2020 Nov 13;25(22):5310. doi: 10.3390/molecules25225310.

Chronic modafinil administration to preadolescent rats impairs social play behavior and dopaminergic system. Cid-Jofré V, Gárate-Pérez M, Clark PJ, Valero-Jara V, España RA, Sotomayor-Zárate R, Cruz G, Renard GM. Neuropharmacology. 2020 Nov 13;183:108404. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2020.108404. 

Receptors involved in dexketoprofen analgesia in murine visceral pain. Noriega V, Sierralta F, Poblete P, Aranda N, Sotomayor-Zarate R, Prieto JC, Miranda HF. J Biosci. 2020;45:94.

The Antinociceptive Activities of Certain NSAIDS Combinations in Murine Orofacial Test. Miranda HF, Noriega V, Sierralta F, Sotomayor-Zárate R, Prieto JC. Drug Res (Stuttg). 2020 Jul 24. doi: 10.1055/a-1217-6777. 

Nicotinic Antagonist UFR2709 Inhibits Nicotine Reward and Decreases Anxiety in Zebrafish. Viscarra F, González-Gutierrez J, Esparza E, Figueroa C, Paillali P, Hödar-Salazar M, Cespedes C, Quiroz G, Sotomayor-Zárate R, Reyes-Parada M, Bermúdez I, Iturriaga-Vásquez P. Molecules. 2020 Jun 30;25(13):E2998. doi: 10.3390/molecules25132998.

Metformin during Pregnancy: Effects on Offspring Development and Metabolic Function. Jorquera G, Echiburú B, Crisosto N, Sotomayor-Zárate R, Maliqueo M, Cruz G. Front Pharmacol. 2020 Jun 17;11:653. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2020.00653. eCollection 2020.

Involvement of NO in Antinociception of NSAIDS in Murine Formalin Hind Paw Assay. Noriega V, Miranda HF, Prieto JC, Sotomayor-Zárate R, Sierralta F. Drug Res (Stuttg). 2020 Jan 30. doi: 10.1055/a-1095-5418.

Gliotransmission: A Novel Target for the Development of Antiseizure Drugs. Riquelme J, Wellmann M, Sotomayor-Zárate R, Bonansco C. Neuroscientist. 2020 Jan 24:1073858420901474. doi: 10.1177/1073858420901474.

UFR2709, a Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Antagonist, Decreases Ethanol Intake in Alcohol-Preferring Rats. Quiroz G, Sotomayor-Zárate R, González-Gutierrez JP, Vizcarra F, Moraga F, Bermudez I, Reyes-Parada M, Quintanilla ME, Lagos D, Rivera-Meza M, Iturriaga-Vásquez P. Front Pharmacol. 2019 Dec 3;10:1429. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2019.01429. eCollection 2019.

Vasopressin in the lateral septum decreases conditioned place preference to amphetamine and nucleus accumbens dopamine release. Gárate-Pérez MF, Méndez A, Bahamondes C, Sanhueza C, Guzmán F, Reyes-Parada M, Sotomayor-Zárate R, Renard GM. Addict Biol. 2019 Nov 6:e12851. doi: 10.1111/adb.12851.

Pre- and postnatal alcohol exposure delays, in female but not in male rats, the extinction of an auditory fear conditioned memory and increases alcohol consumption. Plaza W, Gaschino F, Gutierrez C, Santibañez N, Estay-Olmos C, Sotomayor-Zárate R, De la Fuente-Ortega E, Pautassi RM, Haeger PA. Dev Psychobiol. 2019 Sep 28. doi: 10.1002/dev.21925.

Do your gut microbes affect your brain dopamine? González-Arancibia C, Urrutia-Piñones J, Illanes-González J, Martinez-Pinto J, Sotomayor-Zárate R, Julio-Pieper M, Bravo JA. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2019 May;236(5):1611-1622. doi: 10.1007/s00213-019-05265-5. Epub 2019 May 17. Review.

Programming of Dopaminergic Neurons by Early Exposure to Sex Hormones: Effects on Morphine-Induced Accumbens Dopamine Release, Reward, and Locomotor Behavior in Male and Female Rats. Velásquez VB, Zamorano GA, Martínez-Pinto J, Bonansco C, Jara P, Torres GE, Renard GM, Sotomayor-Zárate R. Front Pharmacol. 2019 Mar 26;10:295.

G protein βγ subunits play a critical role in the actions of amphetamine. Mauna JC, Harris SS, Pino JA, Edwards CM, DeChellis-Marks MR, Bassi CD, Garcia-Olivares J, Amara SG, Guajardo FG, Sotomayor-Zarate R, Terminel M, Castañeda E, Vergara M, Baust T, Thiels E, Torres GE. Transl Psychiatry. 2019 Feb 11;9(1):81. doi: 10.1038/s41398-019-0387-8.

Behavioral and synaptic alterations relevant to obsessive-compulsive disorder in mice with increased EAAT3 expression. Delgado-Acevedo C, Estay SF, Radke AK, Sengupta A, Escobar AP, Henríquez-Belmar F, Reyes CA, Haro-Acuña V, Utreras E, Sotomayor-Zárate R, Cho A, Wendland JR, Kulkarni AB, Holmes A, Murphy DL, Chávez AE, Moya PR. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2019 May;44(6):1163-1173. doi: 10.1038/s41386-018-0302-7.

Prenatal metformin treatment improves ovarian function in offspring of obese rats. Álvarez D, Ceballo K, Olguín S, Martinez-Pinto J, Maliqueo M, Fernandois D, Sotomayor-Zárate R, Cruz G. J Endocrinol. 2018 Dec 1;239(3):325-338. doi: 10.1530/JOE-18-0352.

Proteostasis and Mitochondrial Role on Psychiatric and Neurodegenerative Disorders: Current Perspectives. Olivero P, Lozano C, Sotomayor-Zárate R, Meza-Concha N, Arancibia M, Córdova C, González-Arriagada W, Ramírez-Barrantes R, Marchant I. Neural Plast. 2018 Jun 27;2018:6798712. doi: 10.1155/2018/6798712. eCollection 2018. Review.

Developmental programming of the female neuroendocrine system by steroids. Abruzzese GA, Crisosto N, De Grava Kempinas W, Sotomayor-Zárate R. J Neuroendocrinol. 2018 Oct;30(10):e12632. doi: 10.1111/jne.12632. Epub 2018 Aug 7. Review.

Erysodine, a competitive antagonist at neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, decreases ethanol consumption in alcohol-preferring UChB rats. Quiroz G, Guerra-Díaz N, Iturriaga-Vásquez P, Rivera-Meza M, Quintanilla ME, Sotomayor-Zárate R. Behav Brain Res. 2018 Sep 3;349:169-176. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2018.04.038. Epub 2018 Apr 25.

Neonatal exposure to oestradiol increases dopaminergic transmission in nucleus accumbens and morphine-induced conditioned place preference in adult female rats. Bonansco C, Martínez-Pinto J, Silva RA, Velásquez VB, Martorell A, Selva MV, Espinosa P, Moya PR, Cruz G, Andrés ME, Sotomayor-Zárate R. J Neuroendocrinol. 2018 Jul;30(7):e12574. doi: 10.1111/jne.12574.

Neonatal programming with testosterone propionate reduces dopamine transporter expression in nucleus accumbens and methylphenidate-induced locomotor activity in adult female rats. Dib T, Martínez-Pinto J, Reyes-Parada M, Torres GE, Sotomayor-Zárate R. Behav Brain Res. 2018 Jul 2;346:80-85. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2017.12.001. Epub 2017 Dec 6.

Neurochemical and behavioral characterization of neuronal glutamate transporter EAAT3 heterozygous mice. González LF, Henríquez-Belmar F, Delgado-Acevedo C, Cisternas-Olmedo M, Arriagada G, Sotomayor-Zárate R, Murphy DL, Moya PR. Biol Res. 2017 Sep 19;50(1):29. doi: 10.1186/s40659-017-0138-3.

Anxiogenic effects of a Lactobacillus, inulin and the synbiotic on healthy juvenile rats. Barrera-Bugueño C, Realini O, Escobar-Luna J, Sotomayor-Zárate R, Gotteland M, Julio-Pieper M, Bravo JA. Neuroscience. 2017 Sep 17;359:18-29. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2017.06.064. Epub 2017 Jul 8.

Amphetamine treatment affects the extra-hypothalamic vasopressinergic system in a sex- and nucleus-dependent manner. Ahumada C, Bahamondes C, Cerda CA, Silva RA, Cruz G, Moya PR, Sotomayor-Zárate R, Renard GM. J Neuroendocrinol. 2017 Apr;29(4). doi: 10.1111/jne.12465.

Reboxetine Improves Auditory Attention and Increases Norepinephrine Levels in the Auditory Cortex of Chronically Stressed Rats. Pérez-Valenzuela C, Gárate-Pérez MF, Sotomayor-Zárate R, Delano PH, Dagnino-Subiabre A. Front Neural Circuits. 2016 Dec 27;10:108. doi: 10.3389/fncir.2016.00108. eCollection 2016.

The activation of metabotropic glutamate 5 receptors in the rat ventral tegmental area increases dopamine extracellular levels. Ferrada C, Sotomayor-Zárate R, Abarca J, Gysling K. Neuroreport. 2017 Jan 1;28(1):28-34.

Programming of Dopaminergic Neurons by Neonatal Sex Hormone Exposure: Effects on Dopamine Content and Tyrosine Hydroxylase Expression in Adult Male Rats. Espinosa P, Silva RA, Sanguinetti NK, Venegas FC, Riquelme R, González LF, Cruz G, Renard GM, Moya PR, Sotomayor-Zárate R. Neural Plast. 2016;2016:4569785. doi: 10.1155/2016/4569785. Epub 2016 Jan 10.

Increase in endogenous estradiol in the progeny of obese rats is associated with precocious puberty and altered follicular development in adulthood. Ambrosetti V, Guerra M, Ramírez LA, Reyes A, Álvarez D, Olguín S, González-Mañan D, Fernandois D, Sotomayor-Zárate R, Cruz G. Endocrine. 2016 Jul;53(1):258-70. doi: 10.1007/s12020-016-0858-0. Epub 2016 Jan 14.

Pharmacological models and approaches for pathophysiological conditions associated with hypoxia and oxidative stress. Farías JG, Herrera EA, Carrasco-Pozo C, Sotomayor-Zárate R, Cruz G, Morales P, Castillo RL. Pharmacol Ther. 2016 Feb;158:1-23. doi: 10.1016/j.pharmthera.2015.11.006. Epub 2015 Nov 23. Review.

Exposure to repeated immobilization stress inhibits cocaine-induced increase in dopamine extracellular levels in the rat ventral tegmental area. Sotomayor-Zárate R, Abarca J, Araya KA, Renard GM, Andrés ME, Gysling K. Pharmacol Res. 2015 Nov;101:116-23. doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2015.08.015. Epub 2015 Aug 28.

Introductory letter: Address from the President of the Chilean Society of Pharmacology. Sotomayor-Zárate R. Pharmacol Res. 2015 Nov;101:1. doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2015.07.030. Epub 2015 Jul 31. No abstract available.

“How and when Chilean Pharmacology started to be experimental and became a science”. Bustos G, Renard GM, Noriega V, Sotomayor-Zárate R. Pharmacol Res. 2015 Nov;101:2-8. doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2015.07.007. Epub 2015 Jul 17.